Susceptible populations should choose their food carefully and avoid raw or undercooked foods. The table below contains the food they should avoid and safer alternatives that they can consider:

Food Type

Food to Avoid

Safer Alternatives


  • Fish served raw/undercooked (e.g. sushi, sashimi, smoked salmon)
  • All other raw/undercooked seafood (e.g. oysters, scallops, shrimps, cuttlefish)
  • Thoroughly cooked fish
  • Smoked fish and precooked fish reheated thoroughly
  • Canned fish
  • Thoroughly cooked seafood
  • Smoked seafood and precooked seafood reheated thoroughly;
  • Canned seafood


  • Eggs served raw/undercooked seafood (unhardened whites and yolks, e.g. sunny-side-up eggs, scrambled eggs, partly boiled eggs or omelettes).
  • Salad dressings made with raw eggs, desserts made with raw eggs (e.g. puddings, mousses, tiramisu)
  • Fully cooked eggs
  • Desserts or salad dressings that do not contain raw eggs or are made with pasteurised eggs


  • Raw/undercooked meat and offal (e.g. congees served with undercooked minced beef/pork liver partially cooked steak)
  • Cold meat and meat products (e.g. ham, sausages, pate)
  • Cooked meat and offal
  • Cold meat and meat products reheated thoroughly

Dairy products

  • Soft cheeses (e.g. Feta, Brie, Camembert) and blue cheeses (e.g. Danish blue, Gorgonzola and Roquefort) made from raw milk
  • Cheeses made from pasteurised milk


  • Ready-to-eat raw vegetables (e.g. prepackaged salad vegetables, seed sprouts)
  • Thoroughly washed fresh vegetables