How to Implement a Food Safety Plan

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: What is a Food Safety Plan
Chapter 3: How to implement a Food Safety Plan

Stage 1: Planning
Stage 2: Draw a flow diagram
Stage 3: Develop a Food Safety Plan

Step 1 List hazards
Step 2 Identify preventive measures and their control limits
Step 3 Establish monitoring procedures
Step 4 Establish corrective actions
Step 5 Keep records
Step 6 Check and review

Examples of application of Food Safety Plan

Chapter 4 Basic requirements for a Food Safety Plan

A. Cleaning and sanitation
B. Personal hygiene
C. Pest control
D. Waste disposal
E. Staff training
F. Handling customer complaints

Chapter 5 Relevant websites

Appendix
1. Main factors contributing to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses
1(i). Temperature danger zone
2. Examples of hazards
3. Food Safety Plan Worksheet - Production Flow Chart
4. Food Safety Plan Worksheet
5. Approved Suppliers Record Form
6. Unqualified Suppliers Record Form
7. Purchasing Record Form
8. Record Form for Receiving Frozen Products
9. Record Form for Receiving Chilled Products
10. Record Form for Receiving Dry Products
11. Temperature Log
12. Corrective Action Record Form
13. Cleaning Schedule Record Form
14. Pest Control Inspection Record Form
15. Pest Control Monitoring Record Form
16. Staff Training Record Form
17. Customer Complaint Record Form
18. Manager Self-inspection Checklist

 


Chapter 1

Introduction

Recently, a number of foodborne illnesses occurred worldwide have aroused the concern and anxiety of the public about food safety. Most of these foodborne illnesses are caused by mishandling or improper preparation/ storage of food by food handlers (Appendix 1). In order to ensure food safety and prevent food poisoning, all food businesses including food service organizations should comply with the existing food regulations as well as prepare their own Food Safety Plan (FSP) based on the principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system.

HACCP adopts a proactive approach to anticipate the occurrence of potential problems during the food production process and to implement measures designed to prevent the occurrence of these problems.

HACCP system has been adopted worldwide by many food manufacturing companies. However, a "classical" HACCP system is generally considered not feasible in the food service organizations due to the multiplicity of food products, lack of standardised methods, lack of systematic production planning as well as lack of expertise to develop the system. This document contains an FSP based on the principles of HACCP in order to assist managers of food service organizations to tackle the above problems and ensure food safety, including

1. an outline of the stages involved in developing an FSP;
2. a list of potential problems that may occur during food production in catering operations; and
3. a list of control measures that can be applied generally to most catering operations and advices on when and how these control measures can be applied.

Back to Contents

 


Chapter 2

What is a Food Safety Plan?

An FSP is designed to identify and prevent possible food safety problems (hazards) in order to enhance food safety. The problems may relate to the purchase, receiving, storage, preparation, cooking, packaging, transport or display of food.

There are six elements in an FSP:
1. List food safety problems (hazards) at each step of the food processing (e.g. purchase and receiving of food)
2. Identify preventive measures and their control limits
3. Establish monitoring procedures
4. Establish corrective actions
5. Keep records
6. Check and review

Appropriate implementation of the above elements, together with the application of some basic practices (e.g. cleaning and sanitation, personal hygiene, pest control, waste disposal and staff training), will certainly prevent food safety problems during the food production.

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Chapter 3

How to implement a Food Safety Plan?

Stage 1 Planning

Preliminary planning and preparation will be essential before developing your FSP. A coordinator for developing an FSP should be appointed and adequate authorities and resources should also be provided. The coordinator must have basic knowledge of food safety and must be familiar with the properties of food as well as its processing procedures.

Staff should be made aware of the changes and benefits that will result from the introduction of the FSP. The FSP will only work if each staff member knows their role in the plan, and is committed to making it work. To reduce the anxiety of staff, the FSP should be introduced in phases over a period of time. For example, the FSP could be introduced initially for just the first step of the catering operation (i.e. purchase of raw materials), making sure that the first step is working properly before moving onto the next step.

Food Safety Plan 1

 

Stage 2 Draw a flow diagram

A flow diagram should be drawn showing each step in the operation, from purchase of raw materials to serving food to consumers. The flow diagram shown here is a generic example for a catering operation which should be tailored to each individual operation. Each of the steps of the operation can be considered a control point to prevent food safety problems.

showing each step in the operation, from purchase of raw materials to serving food to consumers.

* Note: "Display" is applicable to businesses providing buffets.

 

Stage 3 Develop a Food Safety Plan

Step 1 List hazards

A hazard is anything that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption (Appendix 2). Use your flow diagram to identify all the hazards (food safety problems) associated with each step.

Examples of problems:

I. Raw materials contain harmful micro-organisms (e.g. raw oysters contaminated with Norwalk-like virus and raw eggs contaminated with Salmonella)
II. Harmful micro-organisms grow and produce toxin during processing
III. Harmful micro-organisms or toxins survive after heating
IV. Food contains harmful chemicals (e.g. ciguatoxin in coral reef fish)
V. Food contains extraneous physical objects (e.g. metal, glass fragments)

Of these, harmful micro-organisms as well as toxins produced by them are likely to be the most important problems that cause foodborne illnesses.


Step 2 Identify preventive measures and their control limits

List the measures and the control limits that can be used to control the identified problems (i.e. those identified at step 1) at each step of the catering operation. A control limit is a value or measurement (such as temperature or acidity) that must be met to ensure safety of the product.

Examples of preventive measures and their control limits are:

Preventive measures

Control limits

I. Using reputable suppliers

Products bought from approved / licensed and reputable suppliers

II. Adequate freezing or chilling

Frozen / chilled foods should be stored at -18°C / 4°C or below

III. Using proper ways to thaw frozen foods

Frozen foods should be thawed under/in

  • refrigeration at 4°C or below
  • cool running water in waterproof package
  • a microwave oven
  • IV. Cooking thoroughly

    During cooking the core food temperature should reach 75°C or above for at least 30 seconds

    V. Proper cooling

    Cooked foods should be cooled from 60°C to 20°C in two hours and then to 4°C or below in the next four hours

     

    Step 3 Establish monitoring procedures

    The monitoring of control limits will ensure that any loss of control (i.e. deviation from control limits) can be identified so that corrective actions can be taken before the product becomes unsafe. The methods used should be kept as simple as possible.

    Examples of monitoring procedures include:

    I. Cooking temperature and time measurements
    II. Visual observation of "use by" date and stock rotation
    III. Visual observation of cleanliness of equipment and work surface
    IV. Visual inspection of incoming food ingredients

    Simple and clear work instructions for the control and monitoring procedures should be developed for staff to refer to:

    I. What is to be checked? (e.g. the cooking temperature)
    II. How is it checked? (e.g. use thermometer to measure temperature)
    III. When is it checked? (e.g. measure once every half hour)
    IV. Who does the check? (e.g. chef assistants)

    Step 4 Establish corrective actions

    If monitoring procedures reveal loss of control, corrective actions must be taken immediately. Examples of corrective actions:

    I. Reheat the food until its core temperature reaches 75°C or above for at least 30 seconds if the cooking temperature is inadequate.
    II. Adjust or repair the chiller if its temperature is higher than 4oC.
    III. Clean the equipment again if it is dirty.

     

    Step 5 Keep records

    Maintenance of monitoring records (e.g. temperature records of the freezer) helps evaluate whether preventive measures are adequate and efficient. You can make reference to the record sheets shown in Appendices 3 to 17 and choose the ones that are suitable for you to record the monitoring results.

    Step 6 Check and review

    In order to ensure that your FSP works properly, you should perform a systematic check periodically (e.g. once a week). An example of an FSP checklist is provided in Appendix 18 to assist you to develop your own inspection checklist. The checklist may help you determine areas in your operation requiring attention and improvement. In addition, you should also review your FSP at least once a year because your operation or products may change.

    Back to Contents

     

    Examples of application of Food Safety Plan

    Following are examples of possible problems and their controls for each step in the food service operation:

    Step: Purchase

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures*

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Raw materials contaminated with

  • Food poisoning bacteria
  • Toxins
  • Chemicals such as pesticides
  • Glass, metal, etc
  • Raw materials obtained from approved / licensed and reputable suppliers

    Evidence showing that suppliers follow good manufacturing practices

    Inspect suppliers’ premises and check their monitoring records

    Once a year and before renewing contracts with suppliers

    Purchasing manager

    Avoid unqualified suppliers

    Record of approved and unqualified suppliers (Appendices 5 and 6)

    Suppliers’ records on customer complaints

    Check records

    Before renewing contracts with suppliers

    Purchasing manager

    Avoid unqualified suppliers

    Establish products’ safety and quality specifications with suppliers (including delivery temperature of perishable foods)

    Requirements mentioned in product specification

    Check product specification

    Before purchasing

    Purchasing manager

    Avoid ordering substandard foods

    Purchasing record form (Appendix 7) and product specification

    * Monitoring procedures (e.g. frequency of monitoring) should be tailor-made to suit your own operation.

     

    Step: Receiving

    Raw materials or ingredients must be checked against the specifications on deliveries. Depending upon the degree of risk they present, some food or raw ingredients will need to be checked more frequently.

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Damaged packaging and contamination with foreign matter (including food poisoning bacteria)

    Packaging is intact and has no visible foreign matter

    Integrity of packaging and signs of contamination

    Visual checking

    Receiving raw materials

    Receiver

    Reject raw materials and inform suppliers

    Records of incoming food and supplies (Appendices 8,9 and 10)

    Delivery vehicles are clean and hygienic and are not used for the transport of chemicals

    Hygienic condition of vehicles and evidence of the vehicle being used to transport chemicals

    Visual checking

    Receiving raw materials

    Receiver

    Reject raw materials and inform suppliers

    Presence and growth of food poisoning bacteria during delivery

    No sign of deterioration of raw materials (e.g. appearance and odour, etc.)

    General conditions of raw materials

    Check the appearance of raw materials (ie. colour, smell, texture, etc.)

    Receiving raw materials

    Receiver

    Reject raw materials and inform suppliers

    Not exceeding the expiry date of raw materials ("use by" or "best before" date)

    Expiry date of raw materials

    Check the labels

    Receiving raw materials

    Receiver

    Reject raw materials and inform suppliers

    Temperature of raw materials on arrival: 4 or below (chilled foods) / entirely frozen (frozen foods)

    Temperature of raw materials / Appearance of food

    Use thermometer and check the appearance of food

    Receiving raw materials

    Receiver

    Reject raw materials and inform suppliers

    Store chilled / frozen foods at 4/-18 or below immediately after receiving (e.g. within ten minutes)

    Procedures for receiving and storing food

    Visual checking

    Receiving raw materials

    Store keeper

  • Review the procedures for receiving food to ensure that food should be stored within specified time


  • Discard chilled/ frozen foods if placing at ambient temperature for too long (e.g. chilled foods have been placed at ambient temperature for more than four hours)
  •  

    Step: Dry storage

    Dry storage includes the storage of some kinds of fruits and vegetables, dried foods (e.g. cereals and seasonings) and canned or bottled foods.

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination

    Group and store food according to their properties and store food in appropriate containers

    Storage conditions

    Visual checking

    Storing / taking food ingredients

    Store keeper

  • Store food in appropriate containers and reorganize layout to separate different food types

  • Discard contaminated food
  •  

    Packaging is intact and has no visible foreign matter

    General conditions of food

    Visual checking

    Storing / taking food ingredients

    Store keeper

  • Re-wrap the food

  • Discard contaminated food
  •  

    Keep storage area dry and clean

    Hygienic condition of storage area

    Visual checking

    Before off-duty

    Assistant manager

    Clean the storage area immediately

     

    Cleaning records

    Check records

    Before off-duty

    Assistant manager

    Remind staff to clean storage area according to the schedule

    Cleaning records (Appendix 13)

    Storage area is not infested with pests

    Signs of pests

    Visual checking

    Weekly

    Assistant manager

    Use proper methods (e.g. rodent traps) to capture and kill pests where there are signs of pests or employ a pest control company

    Pest control monitoring and inspection records (Appendices 14 and 15)

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria

    Use first-in-first-out (FIFO) rotation (Use date codes or marks to show the time sequence of food storage)

    Date codes / marks (e.g. expiry date / receiving date)

    Check date codes / marks

    Daily

    Store keeper

    Discard food if its expiry date is passed or it has no date codes / marks

    Stock records

     

    Step: Refrigerated storage

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination (e.g. cooked food contaminated by raw food)

    Cover/ wrap all food and store cooked and raw food separately

    Storage condition

    Visual checking

    Storing / taking food ingredients

    Store keeper

  • Cover/wrap the food

  • Reorganize layout to separate different food types (e.g. Store cooked and raw foods separately)
  •  

    Keep storage area clean

    Hygienic condition of storage area

    Visual checking

    Storing / taking food ingredients

    Store keeper

    Clean the storage area immediately

     

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxins

    Storage temperature at 4C or below

    Temperature of the chiller

    Use thermometer

    Three times a day (in the morning, at noon and before off-duties)

    Store keeper

  • Adjust temperature or repair chiller where appropriate


  • Discard affected food
  • Temperature record sheet for chiller (Appendix 9)

    Storage area with good air circulation

    Storage conditions

    Visual checking

    Storing / taking food ingredients

    Chef assistant

    Reorganise layout

     

    Use first-in-first-out (FIFO) rotation (Use date codes or marks to show the time sequence of food storage)

    Date codes / marks (e.g. expiry date / receiving date)

    Check date codes / marks

    Daily

    Chef assistant

    Discard food if its expiry date is passed or it has no date codes / marks

    Stock records

     

    Step: Frozen storage

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria

    Temperature of freezer at -18 C or below

    Temperature of freezer

    Use thermometer

    Three times a day (in the morning, at noon and before off-duties)

    Store keeper

    Adjust temperature or repair freezer where appropriate

    Temperature record sheet for freezer (Appendix 11)

    Storage area with good air circulation

    Storage condition

    Visual checking

    Storing / taking food ingredients

    Store keeper

    Reorganise layout

     


    Step: Preparation

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination

    Use appropriate methods (e.g. color code) to distinguish the utensils and cutting boards for handling ready-to-eat foods from raw foods.

    Utensils and cutting boards

    Visual checking

    During working

    Chef assistant

  • Clean the utensils and put them back to the appropriate location


  • Retrain the staff
  • Corrective action record sheet (if taken) (Appendix 12)

    Ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables are clean and hygienic

    Procedures of washing fruits and vegetables

    Visual checking

    During working

    Chef assistant

    Discard contaminated ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxin

    Frozen foods to be thawed under / in

  • refrigeration at 4°C or below


  • cool running water in waterproof package

  • a microwave oven
  • Methods of thawing (e.g. thawing temperature, food is packed in waterproof package, water is cool and running while thawing)

    Visual checking

    During working

    Chef

  • Adjust the thawing temperature to 4℃ or below

  • Discard contaminated food


  • Retrain the staff
  • Frozen foods are adequately thawed (no hardening with ice) before cooking

    Condition of the thawed foods

    Touching and visual checking

    Before cooking

    Chef assistant

    Thaw the food under suitable condition further

    Maximum time for holding thawed foods and cold perishable foods at above 4is four hours

    Length of time holding perishable foods at above 4oC in food preparation area

    Visual checking

    During working

    Chef assistant

  • Control the processing procedures so as to shorten the time in which perishable food is held above 4


  • Discard perishable foods that have been held above 4 for more than four hours
  •  

    Step: Cooking

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Survival of food poisoning bacteria and bacteria spores

    Core food temperature reaches 75°C or above for at least 30 seconds

    Core food temperature

    Use thermometer

    Each batch

    Chef

    Continue cooking food to required temperature

    Temperature record sheet

  • Minced meat is brown inside

  • Poultry juices run clear


  • Fish flakes with a fork
  • Condition of food during and after cooking

    Visual checking

    Each batch

    Chef

    Continue cooking food until thoroughly cooked

     

     

    Step: Cooling

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination

    Food is protected from contamination during cooling

    Cooling environment (whether there is any source of contamination)

    Visual checking

    During working

    Chef assistant

  • Eliminate the possible sources of contamination

  • Discard contaminated food
  •  

    Containers are clean and hygienic

    Cleanliness of containers

    Visual checking

    Before use

    Chef assistant

    Clean and sanitise the containers

     

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxin

    Containers less than five cm/ two inches high

    Height of containers

    Visual checking

    Before use

    Chef assistant

    Use shallow containers

     

    Cool to 4or below in six hours (Cool from 60to 20 in two hours and then to 4 or below in the next four hours)

    Cooing time and temperature of foods

    Use timer and thermometer

    Every hour

    Chef assistant

  • Cool food by -
    • dividing into small portions
    • placing containers in ice water bath
    • stirring frequently
  • Discard product if temperature is still above 4 after six hours of cooling
  • Temperature record sheet

     

    Step: Reheating

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Survival of food poisoning bacteria

    Heat food to a core temperature 75°C or above for at least 30 seconds

    Core food temperature

    Use thermometer

    Each batch

    Chef

    Continue reheating food to required temperature

    Temperature record sheet

     

    Step: Hot holding

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination

    Cover / wrap all food

    Storage conditions

    Visual checking

    During working

    Chef assistant

  • Cover / wrap the food

  • Discard contaminated food
  •  

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxin

    Keep food above 60°C

    Temperature of food in holding containers

    Use thermometer

    Every two hours

    Chef assistant

  • Adjust hot holding apparatus to keep food above 60

  • Discard food if it is held at 60°C or below for more than four hours
  • Temperature record sheet (Appendix 11)

     

    Step: Display (applicable to businesses providing buffets)

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination

    Display ready-to-eat foods* separately from non ready-to-eat foods (e.g. uncooked meat)

    Condition during display

    Visual checking

    During display

    Attendants#

    Discard contaminated food and review the display layout

     

    Use different sets of utensils to handle ready-to-eat foods* and non ready-to-eat foods

    Utensils for handling food

    Visual checking

    During display

    Attendants

    Discard contaminated food and clean the contaminated utensils

     

    Avoid topping up an displayed batch of food with a fresh one

    Handling of food

    Visual checking

    During buffet operation hours

    Chef

    Retrain the staff

     

    Displayed leftovers are not kept for further use

    Handling of leftovers

    Visual checking

    During and after display

    Chef

    Discard all leftovers

     

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxin

    Keep food above 60°C

    Temperature of food

    Use thermometer

    Every hour

    Attendants

  • Adjust hot holding apparatus to keep food above 60oC

  • Discard food if it is held at 60°C or below for more than 4 hours and review display procedures
  • Temperature record sheet (Appendix 11)

    Keep cold foods (e.g. raw oysters, sashimi and salad) at 4 or below

    Conditions during display

    Visual checking

    During display

    Attendants

    Discard food if it is held above 4 for more than four hours and review display procedures

    Temperature record sheet for chiller (Appendix 11)

    Temperature of chillers

    Use thermometer

    Every two hours

    Attendants

    Adjust storage temperature or repair chiller where appropriate

    Keep displaying food in small portions

    Condition during display

    Visual checking

    During display

    Manager

    Review the quantity of food for display to shorten display time and retrain the relevant staff to explain the procedures of display

     

    * Sashimi and raw oysters are classified as ready-to-eat foods.
    #Attendants should be present at buffet tables to monitor the hygienic condition of displayed food.

    Step: Transport

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

    Cross-contamination

    Delivery persons have good personal hygiene practices

    Personal hygiene practices of staff

    Visual checking

    During delivery

    Supervisor

    Retrain delivery persons

     

    Delivery vehicles are clean and hygienic and are not used for the transport of chemicals

    Hygienic condition of vehicles and evidence of the vehicles being used to transport chemicals

    Visual checking

    During delivery

    Supervisor

  • Clean the delivery vehicle immediately or use an appropriate vehicle

  • Discard contaminated food where necessary
  • Vehicle inspection sheet

    Growth of food poisoning bacteria and formation of toxin

    Keep hot foods above 60°C and cold foods at 4°C or below

    Temperature of foods

    Use thermometer

    During delivery

    Delivery person

  • Adjust delivery system so that it can achieve acceptable temperatures

  • Discard food if hot food is kept at a temperature at 60°C or below for more than 4 hours

  • Discard food if cold food is kept at a temperature above 4°C for more than 4 hours
  • Temperature record sheet (Appendix 11)

    Back to Contents


    Chapter 4

    Basic requirements for a Food Safety Plan

     

    An FSP should also include some basic activities (e.g. cleaning and sanitation, personal hygiene, pest control, waste disposal and staff training) so that potential problems arising from the food production process will be prevented more effectively. Listed below are the examples of these activities.

    A. Cleaning and sanitation

    Food preparation areas, facilities, equipment and all food contact surfaces should always be kept clean because food residues and dirt may contaminate food resulting in food poisoning. A cleaning programme should therefore be developed to ensure that cleaning and sanitising be carried out in a systematic, regular and effective manner.

    The steps for cleaning and sanitising of utensils are as follows:

    1. Remove debris by wiping, scraping
    2. Rinse with hot water
    3. Clean with detergents
    4. Rinse with water
    5. Sanitize with hot water or chemical sanitisers (instructions for use and safety precautions on the labels should always be followed when using chemical sanitisers)
    6. Air dry

    In order to ensure that cleaning and sanitation is carried out effectively in your premises, you should develop a well-planned cleaning and sanitation programme and maintain relevant records for evaluation. A well-planned cleaning and sanitation programme should include the following elements:

    • areas, utensils and equipment to be cleaned
    • frequency of cleaning required for each item
    • cleaning procedure specified for each item
    • equipment and methods to be used
    • chemicals or systems to be used
    • the staff responsible for each task

     

    An example of cleaning programme

    Item

    Frequency

    Equipment and chemicals

    Method

    Responsible person

    STRUCTURE

    Floors

    End of each day or as required

    Broom, damp mop, brush, detergent and sanitiser

    1. Sweep the area
    2. Apply detergent and mop the area
    3. Use scrub for extra soil
    4. Rinse thoroughly with water
    5. Remove water with mop

     

    Walls, window and ceiling

    Monthly or as required

    Wiping cloths, brush and detergent

    1. Remove dry soil
    2. Rinse with hot water
    3. Apply detergent and wash
    4. Rinse with water
    5. Air dry

     

    FOOD CONTACT SURFACES

    Work tables and sinks

    After use

    Wiping cloths, detergent and sanitiser

    1. Remove food debris and soil
    2. Rinse with hot water
    3. Apply detergent and wash
    4. Rinse with water
    5. Apply sanitiser
    6. Air dry

     

    EQUIPMENT

    Utensils, cutting boards, knives, and other cooking equipment

    After each use

     

    Wiping cloths, brush, detergent and sanitiser

    1. Remove food debris and soil
    2. Rinse with hot water
    3. Apply detergent and wash
    4. Rinse with water
    5. Apply sanitiser
    6. Air dry

     

    Refrigerator, freezers and storage areas

    Weekly or as required

    Wiping cloths, brush and detergent

    1. Remove food debris and soil
    2. Rinse with water
    3. Apply detergent and wash
    4. Rinse with water
    5. Dry with clean cloths / Air dry

     

    HAND CONTACT SURFACES

    Door knobs, drawers and switches

    Daily

    Wiping cloths and detergent

    1. Remove debris
    2. Apply detergent
    3. Rinse with wiping cloths
    4. Dry with paper towel/Air dry
     

     

    B. Personal hygiene

    Good personal hygiene is essential to ensure food safety. Food poisoning bacteria may be present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. All food handlers must therefore maintain a high standard of personal hygiene and cleanliness in order to avoid transferring food poisoning micro-organisms to food. The following points need to be considered by all food handlers:

    Handwashing

    Hands must be washed:

    • Before working
    • Before preparing food
    • After going to toilets
    • After handling raw foods
    • After licking fingers, coughing, sneezing, eating, drinking or smoking
    • After touching ears, nose, hair, mouth, or other bare body parts
    • After touching pimples or sores
    • After handling waste
    • After carrying out cleaning duties
    • After changing soiled clothes
    • After handling animals
    • After any other unhygienic practices

     

    How to wash your hands:

    1. Wet hands with warm running water
    2. Apply soap
    3. Rub hands for 20 seconds (If necessary, use a nail brush to clean nails. However, the brush must be kept clean and sanitary.)
    4. Rinse hands thoroughly
    5. Dry hands with a paper towel (the paper towel can then be used to turn off the tap)
    6. Turn off the tap with the paper towel

     

    handwashingstep

     

    Hand care

    • Keep fingernails short and clean
    • Cover all wounds or cuts on hands or arms completely with bright-coloured waterproof wound strip
    • Wear disposable gloves if there are wounds on hands. Change both gloves and wound strip regularly

    Clothing and appearance

    • Uniforms and aprons (or clothes) should be clean at the beginning of a work shift
    • Wear a hair restraint (hat or hairnet)
    • Avoid wearing jewellery while handling and preparing food
    • Avoid using strong perfumes/after-shaves
    • Do not wear uniforms / aprons outside the food preparation area
    uniform

    Personal hygiene practices while handling food

    · Avoid touching nose, mouth, hair and skin during food preparation
    · Do not smoke in food premises
    · Do not cough or sneeze directly onto food. Wash hands after coughing or sneezing
    · Wash hands after blowing nose
    · Use disposable tissues to wipe hands

    Wash hand

    Infection

    · Food handlers should be free from any illnesses such as gastroenteritis or flu
    · Cease working and report to the manager when feeling ill

     

     

    C. Pest control

    Pests may contaminate food and cause foodborne illness. A pest control programme should be developed to eliminate pests and prevent pests from infesting your food premises. An effective pest control programme should be able to prevent access, deny harbourage and eradicate any pests present.

    Design of facilities
    • Seal all gaps around fittings or in walls or floors
    • Keep doors to the outside closed at all times
    • Fit windows open directly into food preparation areas with screens (with apertures of two mm2or less) to keep insects out
    • Cover ventilation ducts and floor drains

    Preventive measures

    • Store food and supplies properly:
      • Cover them properly
      • Store them at least 30cm/twelve inches off the floor and 15cm/six inches away from walls
      • Store them at low humidity (50 per cent or less)
      • Apply first-in-first-out system
    • Remove cartons, newspapers, etc. that may attract and harbour pests
    • Store and remove garbage properly and regularly. Keep refuse bins covered
    • Keep garbage in sealed plastic bags and inside tightly covered refuse bins
    • Clean up spillages of food immediately · Keep toilets clean and hygienic

    Inspection

    • Inspect both outside and inside of premises frequently (e.g. weekly) for signs of pests
    • Check incoming food and supplies for signs of pests (e.g. any pest is harboured inside the packaging of food and supplies)
    • An example of a pest control inspection record sheet is provided in Appendix 14

     

    Elimination

    • Use chemical, physical or biological means (e.g. rodent traps) where there are signs of pests
    • Use a zapper or insecticutor to capture and kill flying insects. Ensure zappers are not above or within three metres of a food preparation or storage area.
    • Avoid spraying insecticide over food preparation surfaces
    • Hire a professional pest control company when necessary
    • An example of a pest control monitoring record sheet is provided in Appendix 15
    rubbish
    Preventive measures

    D. Waste disposal

    Waste can be regarded as any item of foods, ingredients, packaging materials, etc. which is not suitable for further use and intended to be disposed of. Waste should be controlled carefully since it presents a risk of contamination of food.

    • Waste disposal bins should be placed near the working area of food preparation rooms and positioned conveniently to operating staff
    • Waste disposal bins should be clearly distinguishable from other storage bins
    • A defined area should be allocated for the storage of waste pending disposal
    • When food waste is removed from food preparation area pending disposal, it must be placed in a tightly covered waste storage bin
    • Plastic liners should be used in waste disposal and storage bins
    • Waste disposal and storage bins should be emptied when full or on a regular basis
    • Waste disposal bins should be cleaned and sanitised daily and placed upside down and off the floor to drain overnight

    waste disposal

    E. Staff training

    Training offers food handlers a better understanding of how food can become contaminated, and how foodborne illnesses can be avoided through proper food handling procedures. Each food business must decide what training their food handlers need by identifying the areas of their work most likely to affect food hygiene and safety.

    Examples of basic knowledge of food safety:

    • Main factors contributing to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses
    • Temperature control of potential hazardous foods
    • Proper ways of using equipment (e.g. the skill of using thermometer, knowledge of handling cooking and storage equipment)

    Examples of basic knowledge of food hygiene:

    • Skills and significance of maintaining good personal hygiene practices
    • Knowledge and skills of cleaning and sanitising
    • Pest control

      • It is a good practice for a business to identify the training needs of each staff member
      • It is also a good practice to keep training records of every staff member
      • Training needs should be reviewed on a regular basis and should be assessed against the role and responsibilities, existing skills, experience and previous training of the staff
      • An example of a staff training record sheet is provided in Appendix 16

       

    F. Handling customer complaints

    Customer complaints should be handled carefully because they help reflect possible problems that may be overlooked by the management during food production. Depending upon the results of investigation, appropriate amendments to the FSP should be made where necessary.

    • Establish complaint handling procedures
    • Document all customer complaints
    • Record details including the date, customer details, reasons for complaining and action taken
    • An example of a customer complaint record sheet is provided in Appendix 17


    Back to Contents



    Chapter 5

    Relevant websites

    For more information about Food Safety Plan, please browse the following websites:

    Regional food safety authorities

    Food Standards Australia New Zealand

    Canadian Food Inspection Agency

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (U.S.)

    UK Food Standards Agency

    International organisations

    Codex Alimentarius Commission

    Food and Agriculture Organisation

    World Health Organisation

    Webs

    Back to Contents


    Appendix 1

    Main factors contributing to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses

    Below is a list of the most common factors contributing to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. These factors can be categorized into two groups:

    1. Microbiological contamination of food

    i. Use of unsafe food source
    ii. Cross-contamination
    iii. Infected food handlers

    2. Survival or growth of food poisoning micro-organisms in food (related to improper time / temperature control)

    i. Inadequate cooking
    ii. Prolonged storage of food between 4°C and 60°C (Temperature danger zone at Appendix 1(i))
    iii. Improper cooling
    iv. Inadequate reheating
    v. Inadequate thawing of food before cooking
    vi. Preparation of food too far in advance and storage of food at temperature danger zone vii. Improper handling of leftovers

     

    Main factors contributing to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses



    Appendix 1(i)

    Temperature danger zone

     
    Food should be stored at 4℃ or below or above 60℃ to retard the growth of food poisoning bacteria.

    * Note: Some of the food poisoning bacteria can still grow at low temperature, e.g. Listeria monocytogenes.

     


    Appendix 2

    Examples of hazards

    A hazard is anything in food that may cause harm to consumers. Hazards may be biological, chemical or physical: germs

     

    Biological

     

    Sources

    Suspected Food Items

    Salmonella spp.

    gastro-intestinal tract of humans and animals

    Meat and its products, milk and eggs, etc

    Staphylococcus aureus

    skin, hair, nose and throat of humans, and animals

    Flour confection, milk and its products, egg products, ham and ready-to-eat foods (e.g. cooked food, sandwiches and sushi), etc

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    marine environment and seafood

    Shellfish to be eaten raw and undercooked shellfish, etc

    Listeria monocytogenes

    soil, faeces of humans and animals, sewage and grease

    Raw milk, soft cheese, poultry, meat and cold dishes (e.g. salad, coleslaw and sandwiches), etc

    Norwalk-like virus

    Sewage and shellfish

    Salad, raw vegetables and shellfish (e.g. oysters), etc

    Hepatitis A virus

    Sewage and shellfish

    Shellfish (e.g. clams and oysters), etc

     

    Chemical

     

    Suspected Food Items

    Prohibited pesticides

    Leafy vegetables

    Toxins (Fish)

    Coral reef fish

    Mycotoxins

    Corn, nuts / peanuts and their products, cereal and figs

     

    Physical

    Glass fragments

    Metal fragments

    Stones

     


    Appendix 3

    Food Safety Plan Worksheet

    Production Flow Chart

     

     



    Appendix 4

    Food Safety Plan Worksheet

    Step

    Hazards

    Control Limits

    Monitoring Procedures

    Corrective Actions

    Records

    What

    How

    When

    Who

      

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

                 

    Appendix 5

    Approved Suppliers Record Form

    Product

    Details of supplier (e.g. name, address, phone number and food safety management system, etc)

    Date approved

    Remarks

    Signature

    Date

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     



    Appendix 6

    Unqualified Suppliers Record Form

    Product

    Details of supplier (e.g. name, address, phone number and food safety management system, etc)

    Causes of failure

    Signature

    Date

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


    Appendix 7

    Purchasing Record Form

    Ordered date

    Name of product

    Supplier

    Amount of product

    Packaging

    Specification
    (with / without)

    Arrival date

    Signature

                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   

    Appendix 8

    Record Form for Receiving Frozen Products

    Date

    Time

    Name of product

    Supplier

    Amount of product

    Packaging

    Temp
    (oC)

    Comments

    Corrective actions (if any)

    Signature

                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       

    Appendix 9

    Record Form for Receiving Chilled Products

    Date

    Time

    Name of product

    Supplier

    Amount of product

    Packaging

    Temp(oC)

    Comments

    Corrective actions (if any)

    Signature

                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       

    Appendix 10

    Record Form for Receiving Dry Products

    Date

    Time

    Name of product

    Supplier

    Amount of product

    Packaging

    Comments

    Corrective actions
    (if any)

    Signature

                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     

     

    Appendix 11

    Temperature Log

    Device*:

    Freezer / Chiller / Hot holding apparatus / Oven /

    Standard*: -18 / 4 / 60 /
    Corrective Action:  
    Location / Code :  
    Check Frequency :  
    Remarks :  

    Date

    Time

    Temperature

    Comments

    Corrective actions
    (if any)

    Signature

               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               

     

     

     

     

     

     



    Audited by :   Date :  

     

    * Please delete where inappropriate.


    Appendix 12

    Corrective Action Record Form

    Date

    Time

    Control limit contravened

    Corrective action

    Signature

             
             
             
             

     

     

     

     

     

             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             

    Appendix 13

    Cleaning Schedule Record Form

    Equipment to be cleaned

     

    Location of the equipment

     

    Cleaning agents to be used

     

    Cleaning frequency

     

    Cleaning method

     

    Date

    Time

    Signature

    Remark

           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           

    Audited by::

     

    Date:

     


    Appendix 14

    Pest Control Inspection Record Form

    Date

    Location checked

    Sign of pests (Yes / No)

    Action taken

    Signature

             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             


    Appendix 15

    Pest Control Monitoring Record Form

    Date

    Location checked

    Type of baits

    Evidence of infestation

    Action taken

    Signature

               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               


    Appendix 16

    Staff Training Record Form

    Name  
    Position  

    Previous training received

    Name of programme/ Type of certificate

    Contents

    Organisation

    Date of training

           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           

    Additional training required:

     

     


    Appendix 17

    Customer Complaint Record Form

    Date of complaint

     

    Name of the complainant

     

    Telephone number of the complainant

     

    Cause of the complaint

     

     

     

    Ways of sending the complaint

    Oral / Written

    Staff receiving the complaint

     

    Staff handling the complaint

     

    Result of the investigation

     

     

     

     

    Corrective action taken

     

     

    Response of the complainant

    Not satisfactory/Satisfactory

    Remarks

     

     


    Appendix 18

    Food Safety Plan Manager

    Self-inspection Checklist

     

    Part 1

    Checked by:   Date:  

     

    I Personal Hygiene

    Standard

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Comments

    Date corrected

    Employees wear proper clothing

             

    Food handlers wear hair restraints

             

    Fingernails are short, unpolished and clean

             

    Jewellery is limited to watch and plain ring

             

    Gloves are changed at critical points

             

    Open sores, cuts or bandages on hands are completely covered while handling food

             

    Adequate handwashing and drying facilities are available

             

    Wash hands routinely and thoroughly, follow proper handwashing procedures

             

    No smoking in preparation, service, storage, and warewashing areas

             

    Eat, drink or chew gum only in designated areas away from work areas

             

    Employees take appropriate action when coughing or sneezing

             

    Disposable tissues are used and disposed of when coughing/blowing nose

             

    Personnel with infections restricted

             

    Employee illnesses are documented

             

     

    II.Utensils and Equipment

    Standard

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Comments

    Date corrected

    All small equipment and utensils, including cutting boards and can openers, are thoroughly cleaned between uses

             

    Small equipment and utensils are air dried

             

    Work surfaces are clean to sight and touch

             

    Work surfaces are washed and sanitised between uses

             

    Thermometers are washed and sanitised between each use

             

    Drawers and racks are clean

             

    Small equipment is inverted, covered, or otherwise protected from dust or contamination when stored

             

     

    III.Cleaning and Sanitising

    Standard

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Comments

    Date corrected

    Three-compartment sink is properly set up for warewashing (wash, rinse and sanitise)

             

    Cleaning procedures are in place for utensils, equipment and premises

             

    Chorine test kit or thermometer is used to check sanitising rinse

             

    If heat sanitizing is used, utensils should be immersed in boiling water

             

    If using chemical sanitiser, proper dilution should be ensured

             

    Cleaning chemicals and equipment are stored properly

             

    The utensils are allowed to air dry

             

    Adequate clean wiping cloths are provided

             

    Cleaned tableware and utensils are properly stored

             

     

    IV.Waste Disposal

    Standard

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Comments

    Date corrected

    Adequate waste disposal bins are provided

             

    Waste disposal bins are washed and sanitised

             

    Waste disposal bins are emptied as necessary

             

    Cartons and waste are removed from food preparation area

             

    Waste storage area is insect- or rodent-proved

             

    Proper storage is available for brooms, mops, and other cleaning utensils outside food preparation area

             

     

    V. Pest Control

    Standard

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Comments

    Date corrected

    Screens are put on open windows and doors and properly maintained

             

    A pest control program is in place

             

    No evidence of pests is present

             

     

     

    Part 2

    Checked by:   Date:  

     

    Food Production

    Stage

    Control limits

    Yes

    No

    N/A

    Comments

    Date corrected

    Receiving

    Inspect incoming food and supplies immediately upon receipt

             

    All foods and supplies are promptly moved to proper storage areas

             

    Receiving area is clean and free of food debris, boxes or other refuse

             

    Chilled and frozen products are arriving at correct temperature

             

    Products are supplied by approved suppliers

             

    Dry Storage

    Storage area is dry and well ventilated

             

    All foods and paper supplies are stored off the floor

             

    All foods are labelled with name and (expiry / delivery) date

             

    FIFO (First-in-first-out) is used

             

    There are no bulging or leaking canned goods in storage

             

    Opened bulk-food supplies are stored in containers with tight-fitting lids

             

    Food is protected from contamination

             

    All surfaces and floors are clean

             

    Chemicals and cleaning supplies are stored away from food and other food-related supplies

             

    Cold Storage

    Thermometers are conspicuous and accurate

             

    Proper temperatures are maintained: 4oC or below for chillers and -18oC or below for freezers

             

    All foods are stored off the floor

             

    Units are clean

             

    Food is arranged in a way to allow air circulation

             

    Cooked foods are stored above or separately from raw foods

             

    Proper chilling procedures have been practised

             

    All foods are properly wrapped, labelled and dated

             

    FIFO (First-in-first-out) is used

             

    Food Handling

    Frozen foods are thawed under refrigeration or in cold running water

             

    Food is kept under appropriate temperature (i.e. cold foods at 4°C or below and hot foods above 60°C)

             

    Food is tasted using proper method

             

    Food is prevented from cross-contamination

             

    Food is handled with clean utensils or clean hands

             

    Avoid touching parts of utensils that directly contact food

             

    Proper cooling procedures have been practised

             

    Hot Holding

    Units are clean

             

    Food is heated to 75°C or above for at least 30 seconds before placing in hot holding

             

    Temperature of food being held is above 60°C

             

    Food is protected from contamination

             

    Display

    Display of ready-to-eat and non ready-to-eat foods is separated

             

    Different sets of utensils are used to handle ready-to-eat and non ready-to-eat foods

             

    Hot foods are kept above 60°C

             

    Cold foods (e.g. raw oysters, sashimi and salad) are kept at 4or below

             

    Transport

    Transport containers and carts are regularly cleaned and sanitised

             

    Proper temperatures are maintained during transport: at 4 or below for cold foods and 60 or above for hot foods

             

    Transport carts and containers for food are covered

             

    Transport vehicles are clean

             

      

    This document can be downloaded from the Food Safety Plan webpage of
    the Centre for Food Safety: www.cfs.gov.hk

     

    For more information, please contact the

    Communication Resource Unit, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department at

    8/F, Fa Yuen Street Municipal Services Building,

    123A Fa Yuen Street, Mongkok, Kowloon

    or

    at tel 2381 6096

    8/2009

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