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Glossary

Antibiotic resistance marker gene
Marker genes such as antibiotic resistance genes are used during the development of GM foods. The use of these antibiotic resistance genes has raised concerns that clinical effectiveness of antibiotics will be compromised. The possibility of transferring these genes to recipient cells is considered remote, nevertheless the industry has been advised to use alternative methods.
Biotechnology The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries.
Bt protein
A protein used as a natural pesticide to kill pests. It is produced by bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
Codex Alimentarius Commission
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally adopted food standards presented in a uniform manner. The food standards are developed to protecting consumers' health and ensuring fair practices in the food trade. The Codex Alimentarius Commission is the international body responsible for the execution of the food standard programme.
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) A method to detect the presence of modified protein resulted from genetic modification.
Gene

Genes are composed of DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA). A gene consists of three parts: promoter, coding region and terminator. The promoter specifies the starting of a protein production process. The coding region specifies the structure of a protein and the terminator stops the production process.

Gene

Promoter
Coding region
Terminator
Genetic modification
The technique of inactivating, modifying or adding genes to a living organism.
Herbicide
A substance used to kill plants especially weeds.
Inactivated
Gene sequence of an organism was reversed so that the relevant characteristic was no longer being expressed.
Pesticide
A general term refers to substance that used to control pests, such as insects, weeds or microorganisms.
Plasmid

Small circular DNA molecules acted as vectors for carrying the target DNA into bacteria or plant cell for the purpose of genetic modification. A plasmid generally contains a marker gene (in blue color) such as antibiotic resistance gene for identification of successful gene transfer.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
A method to detect the presence of "recombinant" DNA resulted from genetic modification.
Recombinant DNA Techniques
A series of techniques that combine the target DNA with a vector and lead to the transfer of the DNA from one organism to another.
Threshold Level
A threshold level (%) is set for GM food to take into account the adventitious mixing of GM and non-GM food ingredients. Generally, no GM food labelling would be required if the food contains GM material below the threshold level.

 

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2007 copyright logo | Important notices Last Revision Date : 30-12-2006